Solutions

Solutions
Types Of Solutions Henry's Law
   

Solution

    A solution is a homogeneous mixture of gases, solids, or liquids in which the individual molecules of two or more substances are evenly dispersed throughout the medium (solution). For example, if one dissolves sucrose in water, the sugar granules will break down into individual molecules.


Parts of Solution

   Solvent : The first part is the solvent, which is defined as that portion of the solution that is either in greatest concentration or the portion of the solution that is doing the dissolving. Water is usually considered to be the universal solvent, no matter what proportion of the solution it is.


  Solute : Its the other part of the solution . It is the substance thats mixed with solvent to frame a solution.

Solution = Solvent + Solute



Types Of Solution

   Colloidal Solution ::

A colloidal solution is not a true solution since the individual molecules are not mixed on a molecular basis; hence, the solution is not homogeneous throughout. This type of solution contains aggregates of molecules with each individual aggregate being denoted as a colloid or as a colloidal particle. The number of molecules in each aggregate may be from several hundred to a few thousand. The size of each colloidal particle is usually in the range of from 1 to 200 nanometers (nm) in diameter.


  Saturated Solutions ::

This type of solution is defined as a solution in which the dissolved solute is in equilibrium with undissolved solute. At a given temperature, most solutions can dissolve (hold) only a given number of solute particles.

  Unsaturated Solutions ::

An unsaturated solution is one that does not contain all the solute molecules that the solution could possibly "hold."

  Emulsions ::

Emulsions are colloidal solutions in which the dispersed phase and the dispersion medium are immiscible. If one mixes water and oil together and then shakes the container, the oil will break into very small particles that will disperse within thewater.


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Solubility

   Solubility is the measure of how much solute can dissolve in a given amount of solvent. Factors that have an effect on solubility are the nature of the solute and solvent, temperature and pressure. An increase in temperature, increases the solubility of a solid solute. When the solution is a gas, the solubility decreases as the temperature rises. Changes in pressure, usually have no effect for a solid and a liquid. It does have an effect on gaseous solutes. An increase in pressure increases solubility.



Henry's Law

   The concentration of dissolved gas depends on the partial pressure of the gas. The partial pressure controls the number of gas molecule collisions with the surface of the solution. If the partial pressure is doubled the number of collisions with the surface will double. The increased number of collisions produce more dissolved gas.














              Low Pressure Equilibrium                                 High Pressure
              Low Concentration                                            Higher Concentration




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